Πυρίτιο

14
Si
Ομάδα
14
Περίοδος
3
Τομέας
p
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
14
14
14
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
14
Ατομικό βάρος
28,0855
Mass Number
28
Κατηγορία
Μεταλλοειδή
Χρώμα
Γκρι
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Latin word silex, silicis, flint
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Tetrahedral Packing
Ιστορία
In 1800, Sir Humphry Davy thought silica to be a compound and not an element; but in 1811, Gay Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon by heating potassium with silicon tetrafluoride.

In 1824 Jöns Jakob Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon by the same general method.

Henri Deville in 1854 first prepared crystalline silicon, the second allotropic form of the element.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 4
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Si
Silicon also has the unusual property that it expands as it freezes
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
2,3296 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1687,15 K | 1414 °C | 2577,2 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
3538,15 K | 3265 °C | 5909 °F
Heat of Fusion
50,2 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
359 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,705 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
27%
Abundance in Universe
0,07%
Close
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Enricoros)
Close up photo of a piece of purified silicon
CAS Number
7440-21-3
PubChem CID Number
5461123
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
111 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
111 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,9 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
8,1517 eV
Atomic Volume
12,1 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
1,48 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
In the form of sand and clay it is used to make concrete and brick; it is a useful refractory material for high-temperature work, and in the form of silicates it is used in making enamels, pottery, etc.

Silica, as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass.

Silicon chips are the basis of modern electronic and computing.

Silicon carbide, more commonly called carborundum is used in abrasives.
If breathed in as a fine silica/silicate dust, it may cause chronic respiratory problems
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
28Si, 29Si, 30Si
Unstable Isotopes
22Si, 23Si, 24Si, 25Si, 26Si, 27Si, 31Si, 32Si, 33Si, 34Si, 35Si, 36Si, 37Si, 38Si, 39Si, 40Si, 41Si, 42Si, 43Si, 44Si