Θείο

16
S
Ομάδα
16
Περίοδος
3
Τομέας
p
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
16
16
16
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
16
Ατομικό βάρος
32,065
Mass Number
32
Κατηγορία
Άλλα Αμέταλλα
Χρώμα
Κίτρινο
Radioactive
Όχι
Known to the ancients; referred to in Genesis as brimstone
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Face Centered Orthorhombic
Ιστορία
By the 3rd century, the Chinese discovered that sulfur could be extracted from pyrite.

Indian alchemists wrote extensively about the use of sulfur in alchemical operations with mercury, from the eighth century AD onwards.

In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier helped convince the scientific community that sulfur was an element, not a compound.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 6
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Ne] 3s2 3p4
S
Penicillin is a natural, sulfur-based antibiotic
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
2,067 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
388,36 K | 115,21 °C | 239,38 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
717,8 K | 444,65 °C | 832,37 °F
Heat of Fusion
1,73 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
9,8 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,71 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,042%
Abundance in Universe
0,05%
A
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Ben Mills)
A sample of sulfur
CAS Number
7704-34-9
PubChem CID Number
5362487
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
88 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
105 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
2,58 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
10,36 eV
Atomic Volume
15,5 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,00269 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Applications
Sulfur's main commercial use is as a reactant in the production of sulfuric acid.

Sulfur is a component of black gunpowder, and is used in the vulcanization of natural rubber and a fungicide.

It is used to make sulfite paper and other papers, to fumigate fumigant, and to bleach dried fruits.

It is also used extensively in making phosphatic fertilizers.
Elemental sulfur is considered to be of low toxicity
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
32S, 33S, 34S, 36S
Unstable Isotopes
26S, 27S, 28S, 29S, 30S, 31S, 35S, 37S, 38S, 39S, 40S, 41S, 42S, 43S, 44S, 45S, 46S, 47S, 48S, 49S