Κάλιο

19
K
Ομάδα
1
Περίοδος
4
Τομέας
s
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
19
19
20
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
19
Ατομικό βάρος
39,0983
Mass Number
39
Κατηγορία
Αλκάλια
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
From the English word, potash - pot ashes; Latin kalium, Arab qali, alkali
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Body Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
Potassium's symbol K comes from 'kalium' the name of the element in Germany and Scandinavia.

Potassium metal was first isolated in 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy, who derived it from caustic potash by the use of electrolysis of the molten salt with the newly discovered voltaic pile.

Potassium was the first metal that was isolated by electrolysis.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 8, 1
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Ar] 4s1
K
People whose diets are low in potassium can suffer from hypokalemia
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
0,862 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
336,53 K | 63,38 °C | 146,08 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
1032,15 K | 759 °C | 1398,2 °F
Heat of Fusion
2,33 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
76,9 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,757 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,5%
Abundance in Universe
0,0003%
Potassium
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Potassium pearls under paraffin oil
CAS Number
7440-09-7
PubChem CID Number
5462222
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
227 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
203 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
0,82 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
4,3407 eV
Atomic Volume
45,46 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
1,024 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1
Applications
The greatest demand for potash has been in its use for fertilizers.

Potassium is an essential constituent for plant growth and is found in most soils.

Potassium nitrate is the main explosive ingredient in gunpowder.

Potassium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of soft soaps and as an electrolyte in alkaline batteries.
Potassium must be handled with great care with full skin and eye protection
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
39K, 41K
Unstable Isotopes
32K, 33K, 34K, 35K, 36K, 37K, 38K, 40K, 42K, 43K, 44K, 45K, 46K, 47K, 48K, 49K, 50K, 51K, 52K, 53K, 54K, 55K