Ασβέστιο

20
Ca
Ομάδα
2
Περίοδος
4
Τομέας
s
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
20
20
20
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
20
Ατομικό βάρος
40,078
Mass Number
40
Κατηγορία
Αλκαλικές γαίες
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Latin word calx, lime
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Face Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
Calcium was known as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide.

Calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 when he electrolyzed a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide.

Davy was trying to isolate calcium; when he heard that Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, he tried it himself.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 8, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Ar] 4s2
Ca
The shell of an egg is made up of primarily calcium carbonate
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
1,54 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1115,15 K | 842 °C | 1547,6 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
1757,15 K | 1484 °C | 2703,2 °F
Heat of Fusion
8,54 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
155 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,647 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
5%
Abundance in Universe
0,007%
Pure
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Matthias Zepper)
Pure calcium in a protective argon gas atmosphere
CAS Number
7440-70-2
PubChem CID Number
5460341
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
197 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
176 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,00 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
6,1132 eV
Atomic Volume
29,9 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
2,01 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2
Applications
Calcium is used to remove oxygen, sulfur and carbon from alloys.

It is also used as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys.

Calcium is used as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium.

Calcium carbonate is used in manufacturing cement and mortar, lime and limestone.
Calcium is considered to be non-toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca, 46Ca
Unstable Isotopes
34Ca, 35Ca, 36Ca, 37Ca, 38Ca, 39Ca, 41Ca, 45Ca, 47Ca, 48Ca, 49Ca, 50Ca, 51Ca, 52Ca, 53Ca, 54Ca, 55Ca, 56Ca, 57Ca