Βανάδιο

23
V
Ομάδα
5
Περίοδος
4
Τομέας
d
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
23
23
28
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
23
Ατομικό βάρος
50,9415
Mass Number
51
Κατηγορία
Στοιχεία μετάπτωσης
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
Named after Scandinavian goddess, Vanadis
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Body Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
Vanadium was originally discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río in 1801.

In 1805, the French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was only an impure sample of chromium.

In 1831, the Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores.

Later that same year, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 11, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Ar] 3d3 4s2
V
Vanadium is mined mostly in South Africa, north-western China, and eastern Russia
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
6,11 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
2183,15 K | 1910 °C | 3470 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
3680,15 K | 3407 °C | 6164,6 °F
Heat of Fusion
22,8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
453 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,489 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,019%
Abundance in Universe
0,0001%
Vanadium
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Vanadium crystals made by electrolysis
CAS Number
7440-62-2
PubChem CID Number
23990
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
134 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
153 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,63 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
6,8281 eV
Atomic Volume
8,78 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,307 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Applications
Vanadium is used as an additive in steel to strengthen and protect against corrosion.

Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy is used in jet engines and for high-speed aircraft.

Vanadium foil is used in cladding titanium to steel.

Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid.
All vanadium compounds should be considered toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
51V
Unstable Isotopes
40V, 41V, 42V, 43V, 44V, 45V, 46V, 47V, 48V, 49V, 50V, 52V, 53V, 54V, 55V, 56V, 57V, 58V, 59V, 60V, 61V, 62V, 63V, 64V, 65V