Μαγγάνιο

25
Mn
Ομάδα
7
Περίοδος
4
Τομέας
d
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
25
25
30
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
25
Ατομικό βάρος
54,938045
Mass Number
55
Κατηγορία
Στοιχεία μετάπτωσης
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Latin word magnes, magnet, from magnetic properties of pyrolusite
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Body Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine.

Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite contained a new element, but they were not able to isolate it.

Johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, by reducing the dioxide with carbon.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 13, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Ar] 3d5 4s2
Mn
Neanderthals may have used black manganese di oxide as a cosmetic 50,000 years ago
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
7,44 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1519,15 K | 1246 °C | 2274,8 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
2334,15 K | 2061 °C | 3741,8 °F
Heat of Fusion
13,2 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
220 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,479 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,11%
Abundance in Universe
0,0008%
Small
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Small pieces of manganese
CAS Number
7439-96-5
PubChem CID Number
23930
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
127 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
139 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,55 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
7,434 eV
Atomic Volume
7,4 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,0782 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Applications
For over 2000 years, manganese dioxide has been used to make colorless glass.

Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode material in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.

Manganese also functions in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthetic plants.

The dioxide is also used in the preparation of oxygen and chlorine and in drying black paints.
Excess manganese, particularly inhalation of the powder, is toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
55Mn
Unstable Isotopes
44Mn, 45Mn, 46Mn, 47Mn, 48Mn, 49Mn, 50Mn, 51Mn, 52Mn, 53Mn, 54Mn, 56Mn, 57Mn, 58Mn, 59Mn, 60Mn, 61Mn, 62Mn, 63Mn, 64Mn, 65Mn, 66Mn, 67Mn, 68Mn, 69Mn