Σίδηρος

26
Fe
Ομάδα
8
Περίοδος
4
Τομέας
d
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
26
26
30
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
26
Ατομικό βάρος
55,845
Mass Number
56
Κατηγορία
Στοιχεία μετάπτωσης
Χρώμα
Γκρι
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Latin word ferrum
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Body Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
The first iron used by humans is likely to have come from meteorites.

The oldest known iron objects used by humans are some beads of meteoric iron, made in Egypt in about 4000 BC.

The discovery of smelting around 3000 BC led to the start of the iron age around 1200 BC and the prominent use of iron for tools and weapons.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 14, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Ar] 3d6 4s2
Fe
The color of blood is due to the hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
7,874 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1811,15 K | 1538 °C | 2800,4 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
3134,15 K | 2861 °C | 5181,8 °F
Heat of Fusion
13,8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
347 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,449 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
6,3%
Abundance in Universe
0,11%
Pure
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Pure iron chips, electrolytically refined, as well as a high purity iron cube for comparison
CAS Number
7439-89-6
PubChem CID Number
23925
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
126 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
132 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,83 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
7,9024 eV
Atomic Volume
7,1 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,802 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Applications
Iron is used to manufacture steel and other alloys important in construction and manufacturing.

Iron is a vital constituent of plant and animal life and works as an oxygen carrier in hemoglobin.

Iron oxide mixed with aluminum powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding and purifying ores.
Iron is considered to be non-toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
54Fe, 56Fe, 57Fe, 58Fe
Unstable Isotopes
45Fe, 46Fe, 47Fe, 48Fe, 49Fe, 50Fe, 51Fe, 52Fe, 53Fe, 55Fe, 59Fe, 60Fe, 61Fe, 62Fe, 63Fe, 64Fe, 65Fe, 66Fe, 67Fe, 68Fe, 69Fe, 70Fe, 71Fe, 72Fe