Χαλκός

29
Cu
Ομάδα
11
Περίοδος
4
Τομέας
d
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
29
29
35
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
29
Ατομικό βάρος
63,546
Mass Number
64
Κατηγορία
Στοιχεία μετάπτωσης
Χρώμα
Copper
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Latin word cuprum, from the island of Cyprus
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Face Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
Copper occurs naturally as native copper and was known to some of the oldest civilizations on record.

Earliest estimates of the discovery of copper suggest around 9000 BC in the Middle East.

It was one of the most important materials to humans throughout the copper and bronze ages.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 1
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Ar] 3d10 4s1
Cu
Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
8,96 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1357,75 K | 1084,6 °C | 1984,28 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
2835,15 K | 2562 °C | 4643,6 °F
Heat of Fusion
13,1 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
300 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,385 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0068%
Abundance in Universe
6×10-6%
Macro
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Jonathan Zander)
Macro of native copper
CAS Number
7440-50-8
PubChem CID Number
23978
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
128 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
132 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,9 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
7,7264 eV
Atomic Volume
7,1 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
4,01 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
Copper is often used for electrical wiring applications and for household plumbing applications.

Copper sulfate is used as a fungicide and as an algicide in rivers, lakes and ponds.

It is also used in cookware and cooking utensils.

Commercially important alloys such as brass and bronze are made with copper and other metals.
Cooking acidic food in copper pots can cause toxicity
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
63Cu, 65Cu
Unstable Isotopes
52Cu, 53Cu, 54Cu, 55Cu, 56Cu, 57Cu, 58Cu, 59Cu, 60Cu, 61Cu, 62Cu, 64Cu, 66Cu, 67Cu, 68Cu, 69Cu, 70Cu, 71Cu, 72Cu, 73Cu, 74Cu, 75Cu, 76Cu, 77Cu, 78Cu, 79Cu, 80Cu