Ρουβίδιο

37
Rb
Ομάδα
1
Περίοδος
5
Τομέας
s
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
37
37
48
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
37
Ατομικό βάρος
85,4678
Mass Number
85
Κατηγορία
Αλκάλια
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Latin word rubidus, deepest red
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Body Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in 1861 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy.

The separation of the metal was tried by Bunsen, but he never got samples with more than 18% of Rubidium.

The separation of the metal was only accomplished by George de Hevesy, through the hydrolysis of melted rubidium hydroxide.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 8, 1
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Kr] 5s1
Rb
Rubidium burns with a reddish-violet flame color
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
1,532 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
312,46 K | 39,31 °C | 102,76 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
961,15 K | 688 °C | 1270,4 °F
Heat of Fusion
2,19 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
72 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,363 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,006%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-6%
Rubidium
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Dnn87)
Rubidium metal sample from the Dennis s.k collection
CAS Number
7440-17-7
PubChem CID Number
5357696
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
248 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
220 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
0,82 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
4,1771 eV
Atomic Volume
55,9 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,582 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1
Applications
Rubidium is used as a getter in vacuum tubes and as a photocell component.

Rubidium compounds are sometimes used in fireworks to give them a purple color.

Rubidium salts are used in glasses and ceramics.

Rubidium-87 is slightly radioactive and has been used extensively in dating rocks.
Rubidium is not known to be toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
85Rb
Unstable Isotopes
71Rb, 72Rb, 73Rb, 74Rb, 75Rb, 76Rb, 77Rb, 78Rb, 79Rb, 80Rb, 81Rb, 82Rb, 83Rb, 84Rb, 86Rb, 87Rb, 88Rb, 89Rb, 90Rb, 91Rb, 92Rb, 93Rb, 94Rb, 95Rb, 96Rb, 97Rb, 98Rb, 99Rb, 100Rb, 101Rb, 102Rb