Ύτριο

39
Y
Ομάδα
3
Περίοδος
5
Τομέας
d
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
39
39
50
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
39
Ατομικό βάρος
88,90585
Mass Number
89
Κατηγορία
Στοιχεία μετάπτωσης
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
Named after Ytterby, a village in Sweden near Vauxholm
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Simple Hexagonal
Ιστορία
In 1787, Carl Axel Arrhenius found a new mineral near Ytterby in Sweden and named it ytterbite, after the village.

Johan Gadolin discovered yttrium's oxide in Arrhenius' sample in 1789, and Anders Gustaf Ekeberg named the new oxide yttria.

Elemental yttrium was first isolated in 1828 by Friedrich Wöhler.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 9, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Y
Finely divided yttrium is very unstable in air
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
4,469 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1799,15 K | 1526 °C | 2778,8 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
3609,15 K | 3336 °C | 6036,8 °F
Heat of Fusion
11,4 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
380 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,298 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0029%
Abundance in Universe
7×10-7%
High
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
High purity yttrium
CAS Number
7440-65-5
PubChem CID Number
23993
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
180 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
190 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,22 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
6,2173 eV
Atomic Volume
19,8 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,172 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2, 3
Applications
Yttrium is often used in alloys, increasing the strength of aluminum and magnesium alloys.

Yttrium is one of the elements used to make the red color in CRT televisions.

It is also used as a deoxidizer for non-ferrous metals such as vanadium.

Yttrium can be used in laser systems and as a catalyst for ethylene polymerization reactions.
Exposure to yttrium compounds in humans may cause lung disease
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
89Y
Unstable Isotopes
76Y, 77Y, 78Y, 79Y, 80Y, 81Y, 82Y, 83Y, 84Y, 85Y, 86Y, 87Y, 88Y, 90Y, 91Y, 92Y, 93Y, 94Y, 95Y, 96Y, 97Y, 98Y, 99Y, 100Y, 101Y, 102Y, 103Y, 104Y, 105Y, 106Y, 107Y, 108Y