Νιόβιο

41
Nb
Ομάδα
5
Περίοδος
5
Τομέας
d
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
41
41
52
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
41
Ατομικό βάρος
92,90638
Mass Number
93
Κατηγορία
Στοιχεία μετάπτωσης
Χρώμα
Γκρι
Radioactive
Όχι
Named after Niobe, the daughter of Tantalu
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Body Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
Niobium was discovered by the English chemist Charles Hatchett in 1801 and named the new element columbium.

In 1846, German chemist Henrich Rose independently discovered the element and named it niobium.

The metal was first isolated by Swedish scientist Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand in 1864 who reduced the chloride by heating it in a hydrogen atmosphere.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Nb
Brazil is the leading producer of niobium
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
8,57 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
2750,15 K | 2477 °C | 4490,6 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
5017,15 K | 4744 °C | 8571,2 °F
Heat of Fusion
26,8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
690 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,265 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0017%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
Ultrapure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure niobium bead, slightly oxidized
CAS Number
7440-03-1
PubChem CID Number
23936
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
146 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
164 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,6 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
6,7589 eV
Atomic Volume
10,87 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,537 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Applications
Niobium is used in arc-welding rods for stabilized grades of stainless steel.

Niobium alloys are strong and are often used in pipeline construction.

The metal is used in superalloys for jet engines and heat resistant equipment.

Niobium is found in many medical devices such as pacemakers.
Some niobium compounds are highly toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
93Nb
Unstable Isotopes
81Nb, 82Nb, 83Nb, 84Nb, 85Nb, 86Nb, 87Nb, 88Nb, 89Nb, 90Nb, 91Nb, 92Nb, 94Nb, 95Nb, 96Nb, 97Nb, 98Nb, 99Nb, 100Nb, 101Nb, 102Nb, 103Nb, 104Nb, 105Nb, 106Nb, 107Nb, 108Nb, 109Nb, 110Nb, 111Nb, 112Nb, 113Nb