Παλλάδιο

46
Pd
Ομάδα
10
Περίοδος
5
Τομέας
d
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
46
46
60
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
46
Ατομικό βάρος
106,42
Mass Number
106
Κατηγορία
Στοιχεία μετάπτωσης
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
Palladium was named after the asteroid Pallas; Pallas was the Greek goddess of wisdom
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Face Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
Palladium was discovered in 1803, in London, by English chemist William Hyde Wollaston.

He examined the residues left from platinum after dissolving it in aqua regia, a concentrated solution of hydrochloric and nitric acids.

He then isolated palladium in a series of chemical reactions.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Kr] 4d10
Pd
In the late 1800s, palladium was more expensive than platinum
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
12,02 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1828,05 K | 1554,9 °C | 2830,82 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
3236,15 K | 2963 °C | 5365,4 °F
Heat of Fusion
16,7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
380 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,244 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
6,3×10-7%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
Palladium
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Palladium crystal
CAS Number
7440-05-3
PubChem CID Number
23938
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
137 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
139 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
2,2 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
8,3369 eV
Atomic Volume
8,9 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,718 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
2, 4
Applications
The largest use of palladium is in catalytic converters in the automobile industry.

Finely divided palladium is a good catalyst and is used for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions.

The metal is used in dentistry, watch making, and in making surgical instruments and electrical contacts.
Palladium is considered to be of low toxicity
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
102Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 108Pd, 110Pd
Unstable Isotopes
91Pd, 92Pd, 93Pd, 94Pd, 95Pd, 96Pd, 97Pd, 98Pd, 99Pd, 100Pd, 101Pd, 103Pd, 107Pd, 109Pd, 111Pd, 112Pd, 113Pd, 114Pd, 115Pd, 116Pd, 117Pd, 118Pd, 119Pd, 120Pd, 121Pd, 122Pd, 123Pd, 124Pd