Βόριο

5
B
Ομάδα
13
Περίοδος
2
Τομέας
p
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
5
5
6
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
5
Ατομικό βάρος
10,811
Mass Number
11
Κατηγορία
Μεταλλοειδή
Χρώμα
Μαύρο
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Arabic word Buraq, Persian Burah
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Simple Trigonal
Ιστορία
Boron compounds have been known for thousands of years, but the element was not discovered until 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy and by Gay-Lussac and Thenard.

Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy and by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard.

Jöns Jakob Berzelius identified boron as an element in 1824.
Electrons per shell
2, 3
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[He] 2s2 2p1
B
Boron is an essential nutrient for all green plants
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
2,34 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
2349,15 K | 2076 °C | 3768,8 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
4200,15 K | 3927 °C | 7100,6 °F
Heat of Fusion
50 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
507 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
1,026 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00086%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-7%
Pure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Pure crystalline boron, front side
CAS Number
7440-42-8
PubChem CID Number
5462311
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
90 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
84 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
2,04 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
8,298 eV
Atomic Volume
4,6 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,274 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2, 3
Applications
Boron oxide is used in glassmaking and ceramics.

Borax is used in making fiberglass, as a cleansing fluid, a water softener, insecticide, herbicide and disinfectant.

Boric acid is used as a mild antiseptic and as a flame retardant.

Boron shielding is used as a control for nuclear reactors.
Elemental boron, boron oxide, boric acid, borates and many organoboron compounds are non-toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
10B, 11B
Unstable Isotopes
7B, 8B, 9B, 12B, 13B, 14B, 15B, 16B, 17B, 18B, 19B