Άνθρακας

6
C
Ομάδα
14
Περίοδος
2
Τομέας
p
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
6
6
6
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
6
Ατομικό βάρος
12,0107
Mass Number
12
Κατηγορία
Άλλα Αμέταλλα
Χρώμα
Μαύρο
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Latin word carbo, charcoal
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Simple Hexagonal
Ιστορία
Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations.

In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon; when he burned samples of charcoal and diamond and found that neither produced any water.

In 1779, Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon.
Electrons per shell
2, 4
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[He] 2s2 2p2
C
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
2,267 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
3948,15 K | 3675 °C | 6647 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
4300,15 K | 4027 °C | 7280,6 °F
Heat of Fusion
105 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
715 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,709 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,18%
Abundance in Universe
0,5%
Ultrapure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure carbon as graphite
CAS Number
7440-44-0
PubChem CID Number
5462310
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
67 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
77 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
2,55 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
11,2603 eV
Atomic Volume
5,31 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
1,29 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
The major use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil.

Graphite is used for pencil tips, high temperature crucibles, dry cells, electrodes and as a lubricant.

Diamonds are used in jewelry and in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing.

Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink.
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled safely in the form of graphite or charcoal
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
12C, 13C
Unstable Isotopes
8C, 9C, 10C, 11C, 14C, 15C, 16C, 17C, 18C, 19C, 20C, 21C, 22C