Ιώδιο

53
I
Ομάδα
17
Περίοδος
5
Τομέας
p
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
53
53
74
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
53
Ατομικό βάρος
126,90447
Mass Number
127
Κατηγορία
Αλογόνα
Χρώμα
Slate Gray
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Greek word iodes, violet
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Base Centered Orthorhombic
Ιστορία
Iodine was discovered by French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811.

He treated the liquor obtained from the extraction of kelp, with sulfuric acid to produce a vapour with a violet color.

In 1812, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac demonstrated that iodine was an element and its chemical relationship to chlorine.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 7
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
I
Kelp was the main source of natural iodine in the 18th and 19th centuries
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
4,93 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
386,85 K | 113,7 °C | 236,66 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
457,4 K | 184,25 °C | 363,65 °F
Heat of Fusion
7,76 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
20,9 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,214 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,000049%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-7%
Pure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Pure crystalline iodine
CAS Number
7553-56-2
PubChem CID Number
807
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
140 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
139 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
2,66 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
10,4513 eV
Atomic Volume
25,74 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,00449 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1, 3, 5, 7
Applications
Iodine compounds are important in organic chemistry and very useful in medicine.

A solution containing potassium iodide and iodine in alcohol is used to disinfect external wounds.

Silver iodide is a major ingredient to traditional photographic film.

Iodine is added to table salt to prevent thyroid disease.
Elemental iodine is toxic if taken orally
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
127I
Unstable Isotopes
108I, 109I, 110I, 111I, 112I, 113I, 114I, 115I, 116I, 117I, 118I, 119I, 120I, 121I, 122I, 123I, 124I, 125I, 126I, 128I, 129I, 130I, 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, 135I, 136I, 137I, 138I, 139I, 140I, 141I, 142I, 143I, 144I