Λανθάνιο

57
La
Ομάδα
n/a
Περίοδος
6
Τομέας
f
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
57
57
82
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
57
Ατομικό βάρος
138,90547
Mass Number
139
Κατηγορία
Λανθανίδες
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Greek word lanthanein, to lie hidden
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Simple Hexagonal
Ιστορία
Lanthanum was discovered in 1839 by Swedish chemist Carl Gustav Mosander.

He partially decomposed a sample of cerium nitrate by heating and treating the resulting salt with dilute nitric acid.

From the resulting solution, he obtained a pale brick colored oxide of the new rare earth.

Lanthanum was isolated in relatively pure form in 1923.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Xe] 5d1 6s2
La
Lanthanum is the most reactive of the rare earth metals
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
6,145 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1193,15 K | 920 °C | 1688 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
3737,15 K | 3464 °C | 6267,2 °F
Heat of Fusion
6,2 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
400 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,195 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0034%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
Pure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Pure lanthanum
CAS Number
7439-91-0
PubChem CID Number
23926
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
187 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
207 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,1 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
5,5769 eV
Atomic Volume
22,5 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,135 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
2, 3
Applications
Lanthanum is used in large quantities in batteries for hybrid automobiles.

It is also used to make night vision goggles.

Small amounts of lanthanum, as an additive, can be used to produce nodular cast iron.

Lanthanum carbonate is used to reduce blood levels of phosphate in patients with kidney disease.
Lanthanum and its compounds are considered to be moderately toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
139La
Unstable Isotopes
117La, 118La, 119La, 120La, 121La, 122La, 123La, 124La, 125La, 126La, 127La, 128La, 129La, 130La, 131La, 132La, 133La, 134La, 135La, 136La, 137La, 138La, 140La, 141La, 142La, 143La, 144La, 145La, 146La, 147La, 148La, 149La, 150La, 151La, 152La, 153La, 154La, 155La