Όλμιο

67
Ho
Ομάδα
n/a
Περίοδος
6
Τομέας
f
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
67
67
98
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
67
Ατομικό βάρος
164,93032
Mass Number
165
Κατηγορία
Λανθανίδες
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Latin word Holmia meaning Stockholm
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Simple Hexagonal
Ιστορία
Holmium was discovered by Swiss chemists Marc Delafontaine and Jacques-Louis Soret in 1878.

They noticed the aberrant spectrographic absorption bands of the then-unknown element.

Later in 1878, Per Teodor Cleve independently discovered the element while he was working on erbia earth.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Xe] 4f11 6s2
Ho
Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any naturally occurring element
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
8,795 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1734,15 K | 1461 °C | 2661,8 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
2993,15 K | 2720 °C | 4928 °F
Heat of Fusion
17 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
265 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,165 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00012%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-8%
Ultrapure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure holmium
CAS Number
7440-60-0
PubChem CID Number
23988
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
176 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
192 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,23 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
6,0215 eV
Atomic Volume
18,7 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,162 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
3
Applications
Holmium is used to create the strongest artificially generated magnetic fields, when placed within high-strength magnets as a magnetic pole piece.

It is one of the colorants used for cubic zirconia and glass, providing yellow or red coloring.

Holmium isotopes are good neutron absorbers and are used in nuclear reactor control rods.
Holmium is considered to be of low toxicity
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
165Ho
Unstable Isotopes
140Ho, 141Ho, 142Ho, 143Ho, 144Ho, 145Ho, 146Ho, 147Ho, 148Ho, 149Ho, 150Ho, 151Ho, 152Ho, 153Ho, 154Ho, 155Ho, 156Ho, 157Ho, 158Ho, 159Ho, 160Ho, 161Ho, 162Ho, 163Ho, 164Ho, 166Ho, 167Ho, 168Ho, 169Ho, 170Ho, 171Ho, 172Ho, 173Ho, 174Ho, 175Ho