Έρβιο

68
Er
Ομάδα
n/a
Περίοδος
6
Τομέας
f
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
68
68
99
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
68
Ατομικό βάρος
167,259
Mass Number
167
Κατηγορία
Λανθανίδες
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
Erbium was named after Ytterby, a town in Sweden
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Simple Hexagonal
Ιστορία
Erbium was discovered in 1843 by Swedish chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander, who detected it as an impurity in yttria.

Using ammonium hydroxide he precipitated fractions of different basicity from yttria.

In these fractions he found that the fraction that contained the pink color was erbium.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Xe] 4f12 6s2
Er
The highest concentration of erbium in humans is in the bones
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
9,066 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1802,15 K | 1529 °C | 2784,2 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
3141,15 K | 2868 °C | 5194,4 °F
Heat of Fusion
19,9 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
285 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,168 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0003%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
Ultrapure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure erbium with cut traces
CAS Number
7440-52-0
PubChem CID Number
23980
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
176 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
189 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,24 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
6,1077 eV
Atomic Volume
18,4 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,143 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
3
Applications
Erbium is used in photographic filters to absorb infrared light.

Erbium oxide gives a pink color and has been used as a colorant in glasses and porcelain enamel glazes.

It is also used in nuclear technology in neutron-absorbing control rods.

Erbium is used in alloys especially with vanadium to decrease the hardness of metals.
Erbium is considered to be moderately toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
162Er, 164Er, 166Er, 167Er, 168Er, 170Er
Unstable Isotopes
143Er, 144Er, 145Er, 146Er, 147Er, 148Er, 149Er, 150Er, 151Er, 152Er, 153Er, 154Er, 155Er, 156Er, 157Er, 158Er, 159Er, 160Er, 161Er, 163Er, 165Er, 169Er, 171Er, 172Er, 173Er, 174Er, 175Er, 176Er, 177Er