Θούλιο

69
Tm
Ομάδα
n/a
Περίοδος
6
Τομέας
f
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
69
69
100
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
69
Ατομικό βάρος
168,93421
Mass Number
169
Κατηγορία
Λανθανίδες
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
Named after Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Simple Hexagonal
Ιστορία
Thulium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879 by looking for impurities in the oxides of other rare earth elements.

The first researcher to obtain nearly pure thulium was Charles James, a British expatriate working on a large scale at New Hampshire College in Durham.

High-purity thulium oxide was first offered commercially in the late 1950s.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
Tm
Thulium ore occurs most commonly in China
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
9,321 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1818,15 K | 1545 °C | 2813 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
2223,15 K | 1950 °C | 3542 °F
Heat of Fusion
16,8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
250 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,16 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,000045%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-8%
Ultrapure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline thulium
CAS Number
7440-30-4
PubChem CID Number
23961
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
176 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
190 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,25 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
6,1843 eV
Atomic Volume
18,1 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,168 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
2, 3
Applications
Thulium is used to dope yttrium aluminum garnets used in lasers.

It has also been used in high-temperature superconductors similarly to yttrium.

Thulium has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment.

Thulium is used in euro banknotes for its blue fluorescence under UV light to defeat counterfeiters.
Thulium is considered to be non-toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
169Tm
Unstable Isotopes
145Tm, 146Tm, 147Tm, 148Tm, 149Tm, 150Tm, 151Tm, 152Tm, 153Tm, 154Tm, 155Tm, 156Tm, 157Tm, 158Tm, 159Tm, 160Tm, 161Tm, 162Tm, 163Tm, 164Tm, 165Tm, 166Tm, 167Tm, 168Tm, 170Tm, 171Tm, 172Tm, 173Tm, 174Tm, 175Tm, 176Tm, 177Tm, 178Tm, 179Tm