Χρυσός

79
Au
Ομάδα
11
Περίοδος
6
Τομέας
d
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
79
79
118
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
79
Ατομικό βάρος
196,966569
Mass Number
197
Κατηγορία
Στοιχεία μετάπτωσης
Χρώμα
Χρυσό
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Latin word aurum meaning gold
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Face Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
Gold has been known since prehistoric times and was the first metal used by humans.

Gold artifacts dated to 5000 years ago have been found in Egyptian tombs.

Gold of 98% purity has been found in Nahal Qunah in the ancient kingdom of Israel, dating from about 6000 years ago.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Au
India is the world's largest single consumer of gold
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
19,282 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1337,35 K | 1064,2 °C | 1947,56 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
3129,15 K | 2856 °C | 5172,8 °F
Heat of Fusion
12,5 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
330 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,129 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
3,1×10-7%
Abundance in Universe
6×10-8%
Synthetic
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Synthetic made gold crystals by the chemical transport reaction in chlorine gas
CAS Number
7440-57-5
PubChem CID Number
23985
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
144 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
136 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
2,54 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
9,2255 eV
Atomic Volume
10,2 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
3,17 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1, 2, 3, 5
Applications
Gold is used in coinage and is a standard for monetary systems in many countries.

It is also extensively used for jewelry, decoration, dental work, and for plating.

Gold is used widely in microelectronic circuits to ensure reliable, corrosion-resistant and static-free performance.

Gold leaf, flake or dust is used in some gourmet foods as decorative ingredient.
Gold is considered to be non-toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
197Au
Unstable Isotopes
169Au, 170Au, 171Au, 172Au, 173Au, 174Au, 175Au, 176Au, 177Au, 178Au, 179Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 183Au, 184Au, 185Au, 186Au, 187Au, 188Au, 189Au, 190Au, 191Au, 192Au, 193Au, 194Au, 195Au, 196Au, 198Au, 199Au, 200Au, 201Au, 202Au, 203Au, 204Au, 205Au