Θάλλιο

81
Tl
Ομάδα
13
Περίοδος
6
Τομέας
p
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
81
81
123
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
81
Ατομικό βάρος
204,3833
Mass Number
204
Κατηγορία
Φτωχά μέταλλα
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Όχι
From Greek thallos, meanin a green shoot or twig
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Simple Hexagonal
Ιστορία
Thallium was discovered spectroscopically by Sir William Crookes in 1861, in London.

In 1862, Claude-Auguste Lamy used a spectrometer to determine the composition of a selenium-containing substance which was deposited during the production of sulfuric acid from pyrite.

He noticed the new green line in the spectra and concluded that a new element was present.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
Tl
Agatha Christie made use of thallium's toxicity in her novel The Pale Horse
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
11,85 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
577,15 K | 304 °C | 579,2 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
1746,15 K | 1473 °C | 2683,4 °F
Heat of Fusion
4,2 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
165 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,129 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,000053%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-8%
Pure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Pure thallium under argon
CAS Number
7440-28-0
PubChem CID Number
5359464
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
170 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
145 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,62 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
6,1082 eV
Atomic Volume
17,2 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,461 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 3
Applications
Thallium selenide has been used in a bolometer for infrared detection.

Thallium is also used in gamma radiation detection equipment.

Thallium oxide has been used to produce glasses with a high index of refraction, and is used in the manufacture of photo cells.

Some of the electrodes in dissolved oxygen analyzers contain thallium.
Thallium and its compounds are highly toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
203Tl, 205Tl
Unstable Isotopes
176Tl, 177Tl, 178Tl, 179Tl, 180Tl, 181Tl, 182Tl, 183Tl, 184Tl, 185Tl, 186Tl, 187Tl, 188Tl, 189Tl, 190Tl, 191Tl, 192Tl, 193Tl, 194Tl, 195Tl, 196Tl, 197Tl, 198Tl, 199Tl, 200Tl, 201Tl, 202Tl, 204Tl, 206Tl, 207Tl, 208Tl, 209Tl, 210Tl, 211Tl, 212Tl