Μόλυβδος

82
Pb
Ομάδα
14
Περίοδος
6
Τομέας
p
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
82
82
125
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
82
Ατομικό βάρος
207,2
Mass Number
207
Κατηγορία
Φτωχά μέταλλα
Χρώμα
Slate Gray
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Latin word plumbum
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Face Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
Metallic lead beads dating back to 6400 BC have been found in Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey.

The Romans also used lead in molten form to secure iron pins that held together large limestone blocks in certain monumental buildings.

In alchemy, lead was thought to be the oldest metal and was associated with the planet Saturn.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Pb
Pencil leads in wooden pencils have never been made from lead
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
11,342 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
600,61 K | 327,46 °C | 621,43 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
2022,15 K | 1749 °C | 3180,2 °F
Heat of Fusion
4,77 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
178 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,129 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00099%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-6%
Ultrapure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure lead bead
CAS Number
7439-92-1
PubChem CID Number
5352425
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
175 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
146 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
2,33 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
7,4167 eV
Atomic Volume
18,17 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,353 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-4, 2, 4
Applications
Large quantities of lead, both as the metal and as the dioxide, are used in storage batteries.

Lead is used as electrodes in the process of electrolysis.

It is added to brass to reduce machine tool wear.

Lead, in either pure form or alloyed with tin, or antimony is the traditional material for bullets and shot in firearms use.
Lead and its compounds are poisonous
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb
Unstable Isotopes
178Pb, 179Pb, 180Pb, 181Pb, 182Pb, 183Pb, 184Pb, 185Pb, 186Pb, 187Pb, 188Pb, 189Pb, 190Pb, 191Pb, 192Pb, 193Pb, 194Pb, 195Pb, 196Pb, 197Pb, 198Pb, 199Pb, 200Pb, 201Pb, 202Pb, 203Pb, 205Pb, 209Pb, 210Pb, 211Pb, 212Pb, 213Pb, 214Pb, 215Pb