Βισμούθιο

83
Bi
Ομάδα
15
Περίοδος
6
Τομέας
p
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
83
83
126
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
83
Ατομικό βάρος
208,9804
Mass Number
209
Κατηγορία
Φτωχά μέταλλα
Χρώμα
Γκρι
Radioactive
Όχι
From the German Weisse Masse, meaning white mass
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Base Centered Monoclinic
Ιστορία
Bismuth has been known since ancient times, so no one person is credited with its discovery.

The element was confused in early times with tin and lead because of its resemblance to those elements.

In 1753, French chemist Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated that this metal is distinct from lead and tin.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Bi
Bismuth has unusually high electrical resistance for a metal
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
9,78 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
544,65 K | 271,5 °C | 520,7 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
1837,15 K | 1564 °C | 2847,2 °F
Heat of Fusion
10,9 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
160 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,122 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
2,5×10-6%
Abundance in Universe
7×10-8%
Bismuth
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Bismuth crystal with fancy oxide film
CAS Number
7440-69-9
PubChem CID Number
5359367
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
156 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
148 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
2,02 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
7,2856 eV
Atomic Volume
21,3 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,0797 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-3, 3, 5
Applications
Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is used as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers.

Bismuth oxychloride is used in cosmetics, as a pigment in paint for eye shadows, hair sprays and nail polishes.

It has also been used as a replacement for lead in shot, bullets and less-lethal riot gun ammunition.
Bismuth is considered to be non-toxic
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
-
Unstable Isotopes
184Bi, 185Bi, 186Bi, 187Bi, 188Bi, 189Bi, 190Bi, 191Bi, 192Bi, 193Bi, 194Bi, 195Bi, 196Bi, 197Bi, 198Bi, 199Bi, 200Bi, 201Bi, 202Bi, 203Bi, 204Bi, 205Bi, 206Bi, 207Bi, 208Bi, 209Bi, 210Bi, 211Bi, 212Bi, 213Bi, 214Bi, 215Bi, 216Bi, 217Bi, 218Bi