Φθόριο

9
F
Ομάδα
17
Περίοδος
2
Τομέας
p
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
9
9
10
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
9
Ατομικό βάρος
18,9984032
Mass Number
19
Κατηγορία
Αλογόνα
Χρώμα
Colorless
Radioactive
Όχι
From the Latin and French fluere, flow or flux
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Base Centered Monoclinic
Ιστορία
In 1529, Georigius Agricola described the use of fluorspar as a flux.

In 1670 Heinrich Schwandhard found that glass was etched when exposed to fluorspar treated with acid.

In 1810, French scientist Andre-Marie Ampere proposed that fluoric acid was a compound of hydrogen with a new element.

The element was finally isolated in 1886 by Henri Moissan.
Electrons per shell
2, 7
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[He] 2s2 2p5
F
Fluorine reacts violently with water to produce oxygen
Physical Properties
Phase
Αέρια
Πυκνότητα
0,001696 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
53,53 K | -219,62 °C | -363,32 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
85,03 K | -188,12 °C | -306,62 °F
Heat of Fusion
0,26 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
3,27 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,824 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,054%
Abundance in Universe
0,00004%
Fluorine
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Fluorine gas, but only as photomontage, because fluorine reacts even with glass
CAS Number
7782-41-4
PubChem CID Number
24524
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
42 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
64 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
3,98 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
17,4228 eV
Atomic Volume
17,1 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,000279 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1
Applications
Compounds of fluorine, including sodium fluoride, are used in toothpaste and in drinking water to prevent dental cavities.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) now serve as replacements for CFC refrigerants.

Fluorine and its compounds are used in processing nuclear fuel.
Fluorine is highly toxic and corrosive
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
19F
Unstable Isotopes
14F, 15F, 16F, 17F, 18F, 20F, 21F, 22F, 23F, 24F, 25F, 26F, 27F, 28F, 29F, 30F, 31F