Θόριο

90
Th
Ομάδα
n/a
Περίοδος
7
Τομέας
f
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
90
90
142
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
90
Ατομικό βάρος
232,03806
Mass Number
232
Κατηγορία
Ακτινίδες
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Ναι
Named after Thor, Scandinavian god of war
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Face Centered Cubic
Ιστορία
Thorium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1828, in Stockholm, Sweden.

Thorium was first observed to be radioactive in 1898, independently, by Polish-French physicist Marie Curie and German chemist Gerhard Carl Schmidt.

The crystal bar process was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925 to produce high-purity metallic thorium.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
Th
Thorium fuel research is continuing in several countries including the USA and India
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
11,7 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
2115,15 K | 1842 °C | 3347,6 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
5061,15 K | 4788 °C | 8650,4 °F
Heat of Fusion
16 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
530 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
0,113 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0006%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-8%
The
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (NASA/ESA/JHU/R.Sankrit & W.Blair)
The Earth's thorium originated in the death throes of ancient stars
CAS Number
7440-29-1
PubChem CID Number
23960
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
179 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
206 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,3 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
6,3067 eV
Atomic Volume
19,9 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,54 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
2, 3, 4
Applications
Thorium is used to coat tungsten filaments in light bulbs.

It is also used in its oxide form in gas tungsten arc welding to increase the high-temperature strength of tungsten electrodes and improve arc stability.

Thorium-magnesium alloys are used in the aerospace industry for aircraft engines.
Thorium is highly radioactive
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
232Th
Unstable Isotopes
209Th, 210Th, 211Th, 212Th, 213Th, 214Th, 215Th, 216Th, 217Th, 218Th, 219Th, 220Th, 221Th, 222Th, 223Th, 224Th, 225Th, 226Th, 227Th, 228Th, 229Th, 230Th, 231Th, 233Th, 234Th, 235Th, 236Th, 237Th, 238Th