Πλουτώνιο

94
Pu
Ομάδα
n/a
Περίοδος
7
Τομέας
f
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
94
94
150
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
94
Ατομικό βάρος
[244]
Mass Number
244
Κατηγορία
Ακτινίδες
Χρώμα
Silver
Radioactive
Ναι
Named after the planet Pluto
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Simple Monoclinic
Ιστορία
Plutonium was first produced in 1940 by Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, Joseph W. Kennedy and Arthur Wahl.

Plutonium-238 was produced by deuteron bombardment of uranium-238 in the 60-inch cyclotron at the University of California, Berkeley.

The Berkeley team made neptunium-238 which decayed to plutonium-238.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Rn] 5f6 7s2
Pu
The atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan in 1945 had a plutonium core
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
19,816 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
912,55 K | 639,4 °C | 1182,92 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
3501,15 K | 3228 °C | 5842,4 °F
Heat of Fusion
n/a
Heat of Vaporization
325 kJ/mol
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
-
Abundance in Earth's crust
n/a
Abundance in Universe
n/a
A
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
A ring of weapons-grade 99.96% pure electrorefined plutonium, enough for one bomb core
CAS Number
7440-07-5
PubChem CID Number
23940
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
159 pm
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
187 pm
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,28 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
6,0262 eV
Atomic Volume
12,32 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,0674 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Applications
The isotope plutonium-239 is a key fissile component in nuclear weapons, due to its ease of fission and availability.

Plutonium-238 has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakers, to reduce the risk of repeated surgery.

Plutonium-238 mixed with beryllium is used to generate neutrons for research purposes.
Plutonium is harmful due to its radioactivity
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
-
Unstable Isotopes
228Pu, 229Pu, 230Pu, 231Pu, 232Pu, 233Pu, 234Pu, 235Pu, 236Pu, 237Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, 243Pu, 244Pu, 245Pu, 246Pu, 247Pu