Καλιφόρνιο

98
Cf
Ομάδα
n/a
Περίοδος
7
Τομέας
f
Πρωτονίων
Electrons
Νετρονίων
98
98
153
General Properties
Ατομικός Αριθμός
98
Ατομικό βάρος
[251]
Mass Number
251
Κατηγορία
Ακτινίδες
Χρώμα
n/a
Radioactive
Ναι
Named after California and the University of California
Κρυσταλλικό σύστημα
Simple Hexagonal
Ιστορία
Californium was discovered by Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso and Glenn T. Seaborg in 1950 at the University of California, Berkeley.

It was produced by the bombardment of curium with alpha particles.

Californium was isolated in macro quantities for the first time by Burris Cunningham and Stanley Thompson in 1958.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2
Ηλεκτρονική διαμόρφωση
[Rn] 5f10 7s2
Cf
Californium is produced in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators
Physical Properties
Phase
Στερεά
Πυκνότητα
15,1 g/cm3
Σημείο τήξης
1173,15 K | 900 °C | 1652 °F
Σημείο βρασμού
-
Heat of Fusion
n/a
Heat of Vaporization
n/a
Ειδική θερμοχωρητικότητα
-
Abundance in Earth's crust
n/a
Abundance in Universe
n/a
Illustration
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Illustration of californium
CAS Number
7440-71-3
PubChem CID Number
n/a
Atomic Properties
Ατομική ακτίνα
-
Ομοιοπολική ακτίνα
-
Ηλεκτραρνητικότητα
1,3 (Κλίμακα Pauling)
Ionization Potential
6,2817 eV
Atomic Volume
18,4 cm3/mol
Θερμική αγωγιμότητα
0,1 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
2, 3, 4
Applications
Californium is used as a portable neutron source for discovery of metals such as gold or silver by on-the-spot activation analysis.

Neutrons from californium are employed as a treatment of certain cervical and brain cancers where other radiation therapy is ineffective.

Neutron moisture gauges use californium-252 to find water and petroleum layers in oil wells.
Californium is harmful due to its radioactivity
Ισότοπα
Stable Isotopes
-
Unstable Isotopes
237Cf, 238Cf, 239Cf, 240Cf, 241Cf, 242Cf, 243Cf, 244Cf, 245Cf, 246Cf, 247Cf, 248Cf, 249Cf, 250Cf, 251Cf, 252Cf, 253Cf, 254Cf, 255Cf, 256Cf